Algae is biochemically diverse assemblage of microorganisms amenable to fermentation and mass culture. Algae produce a wide spectrum of compounds with biological activity such as antibiotics, algnic cides, toxins, pharmaceutically actives, various kinds of regulators and biomass for various industries.
Algae contain large amounts of polysaccharides, notable cell wall structural such as cellulose, hemicellulose but also mycopolysaccharides and storage polysaccharides such as sulphuric acid polysaccharides, galactans, xylans, fudoidan, laminarin etc.
Algae contain significant quantity of fat and oils with compositions similar to vegetable oils. Algal fat, oil and hydrocarbons have a wide range of existing and potential commercial applications such as biofuel, waxes, biosurfactants, phospholipids, lecithins, essential fatty acids and prostaglandin.
Algal protein or amino acids may therefore be by products of an algal process for the production of some other fine chemicals or with appropriate enhancement such as aspartate, alanine, histamine, serine, threonine, phenylalanine, leucine and ornithine.
Chlorophylls, phycobilin, phycoerythrin and a wide range of carotenoids such as carotene, lycopene, cryptoxanthin, zeaxanthin, astaxanthin and lutein. And carotenoid derivatives such as abscisic acid, a plant hormone and vit A, act as growth promoters, aid in cancer prevention.
Algae have been cultured as source of carotenoid pigments, viatamins, proteins, lipids, oil sugars and polysaccharides. With improvements in algal culture techniques and awareness of algal fermentation system would lead to commercial use in various industries